The last king of the Inca empire was killed on 29 August 1533.
The Inca Empire was one of the most impressive civilizations to ever rise in the Americas. It stretched north to south some 2,500 miles along the high mountainous Andean range from Colombia to Chile and reached west to east from the dry coastal desert called Atacama to the Amazonian rain forest.
At the height of its existence the Inca Empire was the largest nation on Earth. According to legend, the Inca Empire was founded in the 12th century by the first Inca, Manco Capac, the son of the Sun and Mama Occllo, the daughter of the moon.
The Incas built cities and towns with great temples, and they studied the stars. Silver and gold was in abundance and it was this that brought the interest of the Spaniards. Led by Francisco Pizarro, the Spaniards succeeded in toppling the Inca Empire in the early 16th-century, as part of the discovery and conquest of the new world.
Spain's rule of the region lasted for over 300 years. In the 1820s a revolutionary named Simon Bolivar led the struggle against continuing rule by Spain. His name was given to one of the territories he freed - Bolivia.