Project BritainProject Britain

British Life and Culture

by Mandy Barrow

What's happening this month? | Jan | Feb | Mar | Aprl | May | Jun | Jul | Aug | Sept| Oct | Nov | Dec
British life and culture - England, Scotland and Wales
Stuart Britain 1603 - 1714

The Stuart (Stewart) dynasty ruled scottish flag Scotland (1371 - 1714) and England flag England (1603 - 1714), with an interregnum (1249 - 60). This is the period in British history when a king was executed!

In 1707, England and Scotland officially became one country - Great Britain

James II, tried to make England a catholic country again (the religion of his wife) Parliament did not like this and replaced him with Dutch Prostestant King William III who was married to Mary daughter of James II.

After the last Stewart monarch (Queen Anne) the Hanoverian dynasty (invited by a group of leading Britons) took over thus ensuring a Prostestant succession.

Visit our Stuart Monarchy page for more information about the Stuart Kings and Queens

Stuart Timeline

James 124 March James VI of scottish flag Scotland crowned James I of England flag England uniting the two kingdoms. James's accession meant that the three separate kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland were now united, for the first time, under a single monarch.

August - James I ends the war with Spain
The long war with Spain had continued intermittently for 20 years. England and Spain were now at peace for the next 50 years.

James styles himself as King of Great Britain

5 November - Gunpowder Plot to assassinate James I is discovered
Guy Fawkes is thwarted when he tried to blow up Parliament.

The Union Flag adopted as the National Flag
First permanent British colony in North America.
Jamestown in Virginia, founded by Captain John Smith
King James Bible is published

14 February - James I's daughter Elizabeth marries Frederick V, Elector Palatine. It was through Elizabeth's descendants that the House of Hanover came to inherit the English throne after the Stuarts.

23 April - William Shakespeare dies
August - The Pilgrim Fathers set sail for New England from Plymouth, aboard the 'Mayflower' to escape religious persecution in England.
War with spanish flag Spain

Charles 127 March - James I dies and his son Charles I accedes to the throne


14 May - Barbados comes under British control
Captain John Powell landed in Barbados in 1625 and claimed the island as a British Caribbean colony.

War with french flag France
Charles I dissolves parliament and begins 11 years of personal rule

13 April - 'Short Parliament' opens at Westminster
Desperate for money to fight the Scots, Charles I was forced to summon a new parliament. Only open a month before Charles dissolved it.


28 August - Scots defeat the English at Newburn on the River Tyne


3 November -'Long Parliament' opens at Westminster
With the Scottish army firmly established in Northern England and refusing to leave until its expenses had been paid, Charles I was again forced to summon a parliament. Many of the members of parliament voiced angry complaints against his policies.


October - Rebellion breaks out in Ireland
Several thousand English and Scottish Protestant settlers were killed and many more were forced to flee.


4 January - Charles I tries to arrest five leading members of parliament
Fearing that his opponents in parliament were not only determined to seize political control, but also to impeach his Catholic wife, Henrietta Maria, Charles I marched into the House of Commons and attempted to arrest five leading members of parliament. Forewarned, they slipped away and Charles was forced to leave empty-handed.


22 August- Civil War begins as Charles I raises his standard at Nottingham

23 October - Royalist and Parliamentarian armies clash at Edgehill, Warwickshire
25 September - Parliamentarians enter into an alliance with the Scots

5 May - Charles I surrenders to the Scots

30 January - Charles I is executed at Whitehall, London
Cromwell's conquest of irish flag Ireland

No monarch

England became a Republic for eleven years from 1649 - 1660

Cromwell's conquest of scottish flag Scotland

1 January 1651 Charles II is crowned king of Scotland


3 September Oliver Cromwell defeats Charles II at the Battle of Worcester

Tea arrived in Britain Union Flag
16 December - Oliver Cromwell makes himself Lord Protector
Cromwell’s self-appointment as 'Lord Protector' gave him powers akin to a monarch. His continuing popularity with the army propped up his regime.
Charles 2Restoration of the Monarchy under King Charles II
1 January - Samuel Pepys starts his diary
1664 - 1665
29 May - The Great Plague of London killed more than 100,000 people died. By the time the epidemic finished in December 1665, a quarter of the capital's inhabitants had perished.

Great Fire of London
raged from 2 - 5 September destroying two-thirds of the city

June - Dutch ships attack the English fleet in the River Medway


4 November - Mary Stuart marries William of Orange, Charles I's grandson
Mary Stuart was the elder daughter of Charles II's brother, James, Duke of York (James II). Her marriage in 1677 to the Dutch Protestant Prince William of Orange, himself the grandson of Charles I, strengthened William's claim to the English throne.


James 26 February 1685 Charles II dies and his brother James II accedes to the throne

James II suspends parliament indefinitely
James II attempts to re-catholicize England
10 June - Birth of a Catholic male heir, James Edward Stewart sparks popular outrage. Many of James II's opponents, furious that their Catholic king now had a male heir, denounced the infant as an imposter, and claimed that the baby had been smuggled into the queen's bedroom in a warming-pan.
The Glorious Revolution - the overthrow of King James the II, the crowning of William of Orange and his wife Mary II, and the final recognition of parliament supremacy.
William and Mary13 February William of Orange (William II) and his wife Mary II proclaimed king and queen
16 December English Bill of rights 1689
From now on England's monarchs ruled in partnership with Parliament.

1 July - William III defeats James II at the Battle of the Boyne, Ireland

William III massacres the Jacobites at Glencoe

Bank of England is established to manage mounting debts


December 1694 Mary dies, leaving William III to rule alone
William III's wife Mary died at the age of 32 leaving no children.

English Act of Settlement secures the Postestant Succession placing the House of Hanover in line for the English throne

Anne8 March - William III dies and his sister-in-law Anne accedes to the throne
William III died two weeks after being thrown from his horse when it tripped over a molehill in Hyde Park, London.


England and Scotland officially became one country - Great Britain
The Scottish parliament was dissolved and England and Scotland became one country - Great Britain

Act of Union between scottish flag Scotland and England flag England - part of the Union flag story

St Paul's Cathderal, London, completed by Sir Christopher Wren 
First race meeting held at Ascot 

George1 August - Anne dies and George I accedes to the throne
Anne, the last Stuart monarch, died at Kensington Palace in London aged 49. None of her children survived her, so under the terms of the Act of Succession of 1701 she was succeeded by George, Elector of Hanover, who was proclaimed as George I. He was the first of the Hanoverian monarchs.

Visit our Stuart Monarchy page for more information about the Stuart Kings and Queens

Tudorslast pagenext pageGeorgians

Prehistoric Britain BC Roman Britain 43 AD Anglo Saxon Britain 450
Viking Britain 793 Medieval Britain 1066 Tudor Britain 1485
Stuart Britain 1603 Georgian Britain 1714 Victorian Britain 1837
Modern Britain 1902 +

Roman Britain
Saxon Britain
Viking Britain
Norman Britain
Tudor Britain
Victorian Britain
World War Two


back to the top

email© Copyright - please read
All the materials on these pages are free for homework and classroom use only. You may not redistribute, sell or place the content of this page on any other website or blog without written permission from the Mandy Barrow.

© Copyright Mandy Barrow 2013

Mandy is the creator of the Woodlands Resources section of the Woodlands Junior website. 
The two websites and are the new homes for the Woodlands Resources.

Mandy left Woodlands in 2003 to work in Kent schools as an ICT Consulatant. 
She now teaches computers at The Granville School and St. John's Primary School in Sevenoaks Kent.

Follow Project BritainTwitterFollow Mandy Barrow on TwitterGoogle Plus

Woodlands Junior Homework Help new website