What is the land like in England?
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England covers over 50,000 square miles (130 439 square kilometres) and is the largest of the countries comprising the island of Britain, covering about two-thirds of the island. No place in England is more than 75 miles (120 km) from the sea.
The landscape is determined mainly by the different types of rock underlying it. In the south, chalk has produced the gently rolling hills of the Downs, while hard granite is the basis for the mountains of the north and the high moorlands of Dartmoor and Exmoor in the south-west.
Much of the land in England is flat (low lying) - less than 1000m above sea level, forming meadowlands and pastures and less than 10 percent of the area is covered by woodlands. Farmers raise animals or grow crops in the fields. Read more about farming
Upland areas are generally confined to northern England: the exceptions are the upland moors of Dartmoor and Exmoor in the south-west.
The landscape of England is more rugged in the north and the west. The highest elevations are in Cumbria and the Lake District in the west. The highest point in England is Scafell Pike, 978m, part of the Cumbrian Mountains in North West England. The area of the Cumbrian mountains is the most rugged in England and is more commonly known as the Lake District after the many lakes there.
, a large chain of hills with moorland tops rising to between 600 and 900 metres, splits northern England into northwest and northeast sectors. They run down from the Scottish border to the river Trent about halfway down the country.
is a long peninsular with bleak moorlands and rocky outcrop. The wide expanse of Salisbury Plain occupies most of the central part of southern England.
, a horseshoe-shaped ring of chalk downs surrounds the formerly wooded area of the Weald. The southeast corner, from Dover to Eastbourne, has dramatic chalk cliffs bordering the English channel.
England's best known river is, of course, the Thames which flows through London. It is also the longest, at 346km, in England
(The River Severn is the longest in total, but its source is in the mountains of Wales, and the parts which run through England are shorter than the Thames).
England has a long coastline of 3,200 km. In the south and west, the coastline can be rocky, with steep cliffs. The east coast is often flat and low lying, with beaches and mud flats.
The English Channel runs along England's southern border, and the North Sea forms England's eastern border. Wales and the Irish Sea border England to the West. Scotland runs along England's northwestern borders.
Landforms of England
Also read more about the landscape in the different areas of England
Geography of the UK