1216 - 1399
This dynasty is normally subdivided into three parts.
- 1154-1216 - The first Plantagenet kings were the Angevins
- 1216-1399 - The Plantagenets
- 1399-1485 - The Houses of Lancaster and of York.
Normally separated from main stream Plantagenets because they are considered the first truly English rather than French Kings.
Altogether the House of Plantagents ruled for 331 years (includes The Houses of Lancaster and of York).
Henry came to the throne aged nine.
- Age 9 - 65
- Eldest son of John I
- Born: 1 October 1207 at Winchester
- Parents: King John and Isabella of Angouleme (French)
- Ascended to the throne: 18 October 1216 aged 9 years
- Crowned: 28 October 1216 at Westminster Abbey
- Married: Eleanor of Provence (French), Daughter of Raymond Berenger
- Children: Six sons including Edward I, and three daughters
- Died: 16 November 16 at Westminster, aged 65 years
- Buried at: Westminster Abbey
- Succeeded by: his son Edward
Henry, crowned when 9 years old, did not take full control of England until 1227 when he was 20.
His reign lasted fifty-six years, making it the longest of any English monarch (NB not British monarch)
In 1264 Henry was captured during a civil war and was forced to set up a 'Parlement' (from the French "parler", to talk) at Westminster, the start of the House of Commons.
During his reign Oxford and Cambridge universities were firmly established, and many cathedrals were enlarged or created from scratch including: Westminster, Salisbury, Wells, Lincoln, Peterborough, Winchester (the Great Hall).
1220 Building of Salisbury cathedral begun
His eldest daughter Margaret married Alexander 3rd King of Scotland.
- Age 33-68
- Eldest son of Henry III
- Married Eleanor (Spanish) then Margaret (French)
- Born: 17 June 1239 at Westminster
- Parents: Henry III ad Eleanor of Provence
- Ascended to the throne: 20 November 1272 aged 33 years
- Crowned: 19 August 1274 at Westminster Abbey
- Married: (1) Eleanor, Daughter of Ferdinand III of Castile (Spanish),
(2) Margaret, Daughter of Philip III of France
- Children: Six sons including Edward II,and twelve daughters
- Died: 7 July 1307 at Burgh-by-Sands, Nr Carlisle, Cumbria, aged 68 years
- Buried at: Westminster Abbey
- Succeeded by: his son Edward II
King of England from 1272
Edward 'Longshanks' (so called because he was over 6ft tall) fought wars against the Scots King Robert the Bruce and was called 'the hammer of the Scots'.
Edward formed the Model Parliament in 1295, bringing together the knights, clergy, nobility and burgesses of the cities, bringing Lords and Commons together for the first time.
Edward was a noted castle builder, including the northern Welsh Conway castle, Caernarvon castle, Beaumaris castle, and Harlech castle.
1306 - Robert Bruce is crowned King of Scotland
- Age 23-43
- Born: 25 April 25, 1284 at Caernarvon, Wales
- Parents: Edward I and Eleanor of Castile
- Ascended to the throne: 8 July1307 aged 23 years
- Crowned: 25 February 1308 at Westminster Abbey
- Married: Isabella, Daughter of Philip IV of France
- Children: Two sons and two daughters
- Abdicated: 24 January 1327
- Died: 21 September 1327 at Berkeley Castle (murdered), aged 43 years
- Buried at: Gloucester
- Succeeded by: his son Edward III
King of England from 1307, son of Edward I. Born at Caernarfon Castle, he was created the first Prince of Wales in 1301.
He was called Edward of Carnarvon after his birthplace in Wales.
His invasion of Scotland in 1314 to suppress revolt resulted in defeat at Bannockburn.
Scotland regained independence (which lasts 300 years)
Edward was deposed in 1327 by his wife Isabella (1292–1358), daughter of Philip IV of France, and her lover Roger de Mortimer, and murdered in Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire.
Note modern historians claim that Edward II was not murdered rather just spirited away to secret captivity to enable Isabella and Mortimer to rule the country.
- Age 14-65
- Born: 13 November 1312 at Windsor Castle
- Parents: Edward II and Isabella of France
- Ascended to the throne: 25 January 1327 aged 14 years
- Crowned: 29 January 1327 at Westminster Abbey
- Married: Philippa, Daughter of Count of Hainault (Dutch)
- Children: Seven sons and five daughters, plus at least 3 illegitimate (by Alice Perrers)
- Died: 21 June 1377 at Sheen Palace, Surrey, aged 64 years
- Buried at: Westminster Abbey
- Succeeded by: his grandson Richard II
King of England from 1327
Edward's mother the French Isabella and her lover Mortimer ruled while Edward III was in his minority (too young). In 1330 Edward now 17 assumes Royal Powers, arrests and executes Mortimer and puts his mother under life time house arrest.
Edward fought many battles against the Scots and the French.
The House of Lords was created under Edward 3rd thus separating elected members or “commoners” from Lords and Bishops.
The Black Prince
Edward's lll's eldest son was also called Edward. He was known as the Black Prince because of the colour of his armour.
1329 Robert Bruce charismatic leader of the Scots dies from leprosy. He is succeeded by his son David Bruce known as King David 2nd.
1348 - The outbreak of bubonic plague, the 'Black Death' in 1348-1350 killed half the population of England.
1337-1453 The Hundred Years War with France
1338 French fleets invade England around Southampton, Dover and the Thames Estuary for London but are effectively beaten off.
24 June 1348 - Edward set up the Order of the Garter.
- Age 10-32
- Grandson of Edward III
- Born: 6 January 1367 at Bordeaux, France
- Parents: Edward, the Black Prince, and Joan of Kent
- Ascended to the throne: 22 June 1377 aged 10 years
- Crowned: 16 July 1377 at Westminster Abbey
- Married: (1) Anne of Bohemia (Bohemian), (2) Isabella, nine year old daughter of Charles VI of France
- Children: None
- Died: 14 February 1400 in captivity at Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire (starved to death), aged 33 years
- Buried at: Langley reburied Westminster
- Succeeded by: his cousin Henry IV
King of England from 1377
In the first part of his reign, because he was so young, the country was ruled by his uncle, John of Gaunt whose son Bolingbroke eventually murdered Richard and became king as Henry IV.
In 1381 Richard was faced with the Peasants' Revolt, a result of the imposition of the Poll Tax in 1380. The leader of the Revolt, Wat Tyler, was stabbed and killed at Smithfield by the Lord Mayor of London, fearing for the safety of the king.
Richard ruled at the time of Chaucer the poet.
1066 - 1154 The Normans
1154 - 1216 The Angevins (The first Plantagenet kings)
1216 - 1399 Plantagenets
1399 - 1461 The House of Lancaster
1461 - 1485 The House of York
1485 -1603 The Tudors
1603 - 1649 and 1660 - 1714 The Stuarts
1714 -1901 The House of Hanoverians
1901 -1910 and 1910 - Today Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and The Windsors